A Lesson Plan for Why are You Fighting, Davy?
By Brigitte Weninger


Created by Glen Dawursk, Jr., 8/21/06




6+1 Trait Strengths


Ideas / Content

Voice (theme for this lesson plan)

Word Choice

Sentence Fluency



Way with Word Crafts


Conversation Text:


As the water level rose behind the dam, the two friends whooped for joy.  “It’s holding! It’s holding!” cried Davy.  Then they solemnly shook hands.  “You did a good job, Davy.” “So did you, Eddie.” They played with their boats until the sun went down.


Texts Embedded with Response (Voice) Structure:


Repeating Details & Repeating Line or Phrases:

“I build the best dams in the world” said Davy as the author described how he built his dam piece by piece. Eddie claimed “that was the best boat I ever built” as the author described his boat building.  Davy and Eddie fight that they can do the other’s “skill or talent” just as good. Later, the details are repeated as Davy becomes frustrated trying to make a boat and Eddie becomes equally frustrated trying to build a dam.  The author repeats the building details but this time with negative results. Finally at the end, the phrases are repeated in compliments as each says, “I can’t do this as well as you.”  Again the author details how the boat and dam are built as they each teach the other.


Variation on Sound Words – Same Letter Starts:

“…and together they built two big, beautiful bark boats.”


Striking Verbs:

“Davy waded into the brook. He piled stones on top of each other, but they fell down and the water wouldn’t stop flowing through the dam.” “ How did Davy do it?” he muttered

“Eddie showed Davy how to wedge the stones securely…”

“As the water level rose behind the dam, the two friends whooped for joy.”

“The sudden rush of water swept Davy’s boat away.”


Striking Adjectives and Adverbs:

…and together they built a big, strong dam right across the brook.”

“It was just a silly little boat! Eddie retorted. 

“It was a hot, summer’s day.

“Just then a wobbly little boat floated past, half sunk in the water.”


Lesson Plan

Intended Age  


Middle school grades 7-8; high school grades 9-10




Taught as part of the short story unit; short story terms explained (see power point handout for definitions)




The student will be able to: 

Identify voice in a person’s writing

Identify the theme of the story (everyone has a gift or talent; we need each other)

Identify the 6+1 Traits predominate in the story (see analysis)

Identify the word crafts used in the story (see analysis)

Be able to use “comparison” and “contrast”

Plot diagram the short story using the attached handout


Materials Needed


Copies of the text: Why Are You Fighting, Davy? by Bridgette Weninger

True Color Testing Handouts [PLUS markers and poster paper if they are doing the optional amusement park activity)

Copies of the 6+1 traits and the Word Crafts descriptions

Copies of the  plot diagram worksheet




2-3 days (depending upon student responses and class participation)




Read the following:


During the Roman Empire, a talent was a unique unit of money or weight. In the Biblical "parable of the talents" (Matthew 25:14-30) a landowner entrusts his servants with money and rewards the servants who invest it properly and show a return.  The dictionary says a talent is a special natural ability or aptitude; a power of mind or body considered as given to a person for use and improvement (Definition from:http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/talent)


Have the students write in their writing journals for 6 minutes.  The writing prompt is: “My most unique or significant talent is…”  Ask them to describe what they think their greatest talent or “gift” is and how they hope to use it someday.  Some students may say they have none; however, have the students dig deeper.  For some, a sense of humor, smiling, organizing, or simply cooking Italian meatballs may seem to be their most significant talent. As always, the students may write longer if they seem to be “into-it,” but try to get them to at least write a half page in their journal.  The goal is to get the student to identify their uniqueness; to see they are special.


After reading the first journal, have the students write again in their journals for 6 more minutes.  The writing prompt this time is: “The talent I wish I most had is…” When they are finished, ask volunteers to read their journal entries to the class.  Always thank them for reading them and then ask the student if they know anyone who has the talent they desire?  How do we feel when we don’t have a talent someone else has?  [Sad; angry; frustrated] Have we ever though we had a talent only to find out later, we really don’t?  [Like the person who thinks they sing well enough to be on American Idol, but really are so bad, that many might believe they should not even sing in their own shower.]


Go through the power point presentation (see attached sequence) reviewing the 6+1 traits. Specifically explain the 6+1 trait “voice” to the students.


·        Voice is the “personality” of the writer in a book or paper. It includes the writer’s unique style, energy, sincerity and passion which give the paper or story credibility and emotional appeal.


Ask the students to identify examples of this literary tool in songs, movies, television or other books. 



Pass out the “True Colors” handouts. Go through the True Colors power point and identify the unique “personality” of each student.  This can take an entire class period if you use the “roller coaster” exercise. To save time, the amusement park activity can be skipped.

·        Read through the sheets labeled “Orange, Gold, Blue and Green.” (see attached)

·        We’ll read them together, then, put them in order according to most like you to least like you. 

·        Write your color perception on section one of your worksheet.

·        Next, using the word inventory in section two, evaluate the list of words in each row. Put them in the order of Most like me to Least.  Number them: 4 for most, 3 for next closest, 2 for next and 1 for the least like you.  Do each row the same way!

·        When you have finished all the rows, add the columns at the bottom.

·        After you have added up the columns, the results are as follows: Column #1 is Orange, column #2 is Gold, column #3 is Blue, and column #4 is Green.

·        Finally, circle your primary color.  If you have two numbers the same, then you have a shared color for that level.

·        Now, divide into groups of according to your primary color.  Limit the groups to 5 or less. 

·        Take a poster sheet, pencils and a box of colored markers.

·        Your True Color small group has been given the task to design an amusement park. You have 15 minute to accomplish this task. There are no other rules. GO!

·        After 15 minutes, tape the posters in front of the class and choose a spokesperson from each group to describe each group’s amusement park to the other groups.

·        Point out the unique qualities of each personality group that you heard as they worked together or that you see visually on the poster.

·        If you desire, you may continue the slide show facts which tell national results about each personality.



Again, have the students write in their journals for 6 minutes on the prompt: Compare and contrast what you thought your personality was before the test to what the testing says you really are.  How do you feel about the testing results? How are you a unique personality?


Choose two students to represent the characters in the story (Eddie, Davy, and mother).  While the teacher reads the story using character voices and inflection, the students pantomime the story for the class keeping close attention to the details of the story as portrayed by the narration.


Pass out the text of the story. Break the students into groups of 3-4.  Pass out the 6+1 and Word Craft description sheets.  Have the groups identify the most significant 6+1 traits and the Word Crafts used by the author.  How did the author use the 6+1 trait “voice” or word crafts to create a unique “personality” in the story?  How did the author use word crafts to present the theme of “talents, uniqueness, or working together” in the story? The group must be able to explain their answers.  Discuss how the trait or the word craft affected the writing.  Was their any other word craft that the author could have used? 


After the students discuss the authors’ use of traits and craft, give the “Fast Facts” about the author.


Fast Facts about Brigitte Weninger






Pass out the plot diagramming worksheet. If necessary, review the elements of a short story.  Students may check the previous notes on the elements at www.mrdclassroom.com.


Write a one page story in your journal which uses at least two different word crafts used by the author of for Why are You Fighting, Davy?




   Unit quiz on short story;

   Plot diagram worksheet;

   One page journal essay using word craft skills



What is Your Personality? What are your “True Colors?”

Glen Dawursk, Jr. – www.yuthguy.comwww.mrdclassroom.com


In My Eyes:


Read through the sheets or slides labeled “Orange, Gold, Blue and Green.”  Read them carefully. 
Then, put them in order according to most like you to least like you.  Write your “color” perception order below:


1) Most like me:





2) Next Closest:





3) Next:





4) Least like me:






In Their Eyes:


Now, complete the simple word inventory below.  Evaluate the list of words in each row, and then put them in the order of Most like me to Least.  Number them 4 for most, 3 for next closest, 2 for next and 1 for the list least like you.  Continue through each row numbering them accordingly.  When you have finished all the rows, add the columns at the bottom.

































































































1) Primary:





2) Secondary:





3) Next:





4) Least:








True Colors


What is your primary color?





I am conventional.  I am the pillar of strength and have high respect for authority.

I like to establish and maintain policies, procedures, and schedules.

I have a strong sense of right and wrong.  I am naturally parental and dutiful.

I do things that require organization, dependability, management, and detail.

I need to be useful and to belong. I am the sensible, stable backbone of any group.

I believe that work comes before play. I value home, family, status, security, and tradition.  I seek relationships that help me ensure a predictable life.  I am caring, concerned, and loyal.  I show concern through the practical things I do.






I am courageous.  I act on a moment's notice. I see life as a roll of the dice, a game of chance.  I need stimulation, freedom, and excitement.  I am a natural leader, troubleshooter, and performer. I like to do things that require variety, results, and participation.  I often enjoy using tools.  I am competitive and bounce back quickly from defeat. I value action, resourcefulness, and courage.  I am generous, charming, and impulsive.  I show affection through physical contact.






I am compassionate.  I am always encouraging and supporting.  I am a peacemaker, sensitive to the needs of others. I am a natural romantic. I like to do things that require caring, counseling, nurturing, and harmonizing.  I have a strong desire to contribute and to help others lead more significant lives.  I am poetic and often enjoy the arts. I value integrity and unity in relationships.  I am enthusiastic, idealistic, communicative, and sympathetic.  I express my feelings easily.






I am conceptual.  I have an investigative mind, intrigued by questions like, "Which came first, the chicken or the egg?"  I am an independent thinker, a natural nonconformist, and live life by my own standards. I like to do things that require vision, problem solving, strategy, ingenuity, design, and change. Once I have perfected an idea, I refer to move on to a new challenge. I value knowledge, intelligence, insight, and justice. I enjoy relationships with shared interests.  I prefer to let my head rule my heart.  I am cool, calm, and collected.  I do not express my emotions easily.


Teacher Directions for True Colors Personality Testing

Glen Dawursk (www.yuthguy.com / www.mrdclassroom.com)


The True Colors testing was initially developed by Don Lowry.  His purpose was to simplify the personality/temperament theory work of Dr. David Keirsey, author of Please Understand Me and the family team of Katherine and Isabel Briggs-Myers, originators of the MBTI - Myers-Briggs Type Indicator testing.    Historically we find that the Briggs-Myers test was based upon the 1921 work of Carl Jung in his book Psychological Type.  Jung was one of the first modern psychologist to explain the personalities Hippocrates had identified.  In his book, Jung explained and compared the significant characteristics of these individual personalities.  Because of this connection, True Colors and Briggs-Myers are often referred to as Jungian Type Theory.


True Colors has been modified and tweaked for many different professions.  I have created my own variation of the testing based upon subsequent workshops I attended.  Unfortunately, I do not have the names of workshop leaders or presenters with whom I can credit my adaptations.   I have presented this assessment variation at a number of youth conferences and workshops. 


The basic concept of True Colors is the identification of common personality traits and behaviors and the application of how to use them in a particular setting.  Generally I give a copy of four different personality descriptions first.  These descriptions are a simplified description for the ones Hippocrates may have described centuries earlier.  Lowry divided the personalities into four colors: Gold, Orange, Green and Blue.  For my use, I have adapted the following phrases to describe each personality color.


Once a person has chosen whose personality they feel they most represent, then I test them with a simple word category test.  They simply evaluate the list of words in each row, and then put them in the order of “Most like me to Least” using numbers 4 for most, 3 for next closest, 2 for next and 1 for the list least.  They continue through each row numbering them accordingly.  When they have finished all the rows, they simply add the columns at the bottom.  I then tell them what category goes with which color or personality. 


After the results have been made known, I separate the groups into their primary color.  I give each group a large piece of cardboard, pencils, a box of markers and some pieces of masking tape.  Their assignment is: “As a group, design an amusement park in 15-20 minutes, tape on the wall and be ready to explain it to the group.”   It becomes apparent how differently the groups think, process information, and design it on paper.  Generally the Gold’s are very detail orientated including parking lots.  The Greens usually only use a pencil and use mostly text.  The Oranges like to draw and use lots of color and are the most unrealistic of the groups.  The Blues always remember comfort details like bathrooms, first aid, handicap parking and diaper changing areas. 


In a number of workshops I attended during the past 5 years, I have taken the following notes about each of the personalities:





·         This personality accounts for 12-14% of the population; 70% are woman. This personality is often referred to as the “Hallmarks” as these people are most likely to send a card to someone.  They write cards and also appreciate getting cards. They are flexible, love people, focus well and like to serve.  They give the most “strokes” and also need to receive the most strokes.  Their goal is to be with people.  They are very introspective and ask questions like “Who am I – Who am I really.” This group buys into the True Colors testing results the most.  Blues are the “catapults” – they see potential and motivate others. They can often be misunderstood for being nosey because they always want to know how a person is doing.  They ask about a person’s family and they really want to know – it is not just chit-chat to them.  They learn best by pleasing others.  This personality lends itself to never having a lot of money because blues are always spending it on others.  Blues usually need to go shopping with other blues.  They want to connect.





·         This personality accounts for12-14% of the population.  They love knowledge, research, solving problems, data, philosophy, solutions and blue prints.  To this personality, there never is enough time or data; they always want more information.  Members of this personality usually include: scientists, mid level to top management execs, and CEO’s; 80% of all professors are greens.  A green professor loves when students argue or disagree with him.  They love debate.  They are, however, bored easily.  Greens are good planners but not the best implementers; instead, greens like to develop the solutions or blue prints and allow others to complete the work; they set the vision.   Greens often question everything; always asking: “why?”   They desire the best answers and are not easily satisfied with a solution.  They find it hard to put closure on things.  They will continue to prove it is the best one.  This personality can multi-task well, but a green will be the personality most likely to lose the car keys or where they parked the car at the mall.  Greens are highly introverted and only take calculated risks.  They do not share their feelings or emotions easily with others.






·         This personality accounts for 38% of the population.  This group turns the lights on at work, makes the coffee, makes sure budget is intact – basically they get things done.  Golds are the worker bees. Without Golds, everything stops!  They learn best by instruction and are the ones most likely to raise their hand even in college.  Most church workers and community workers are Golds.  80% of all elementary school teachers are also gold.  However, this personality is a rotten risk taker; they like security.  Golds often make lists and enjoy highlighters.  They entrust schools, prefer laws (most police & judges are gold) and like structure within a family.  They are the most family orientated of the four groups.  Golds also make more money “totally” than any other group.  Golds are the group most likely to organize their sock drawer.  They like things to be neat and in order.





·         This personality accounts for 36% of the population.  Oranges do things quickly, but they usually turn out pretty well.  The difference from a gold is that oranges always do it their own way.  They are not known for following rules or established systems.  Oranges are also very celebrative – they are the “party” group.  When they set their minds to accomplish something, they really like doing it.  This personality is also very hands-on physical.   They like activity.  They are experiential and generally prefer no restraints.  Oranges are mostly in creative arts and due to the activity attribute, most physical education teachers are orange.  Oranges are very competitive, spontaneous, risk takers, adventurous, happy and have a great sense of humor; they sincerely like to make people laugh.  This group, like blues, are very giving, but are not looking for something in return or desiring a lasting relationship as a result of “giving”  -- however, in life, they do want to see results.  Oranges are especially considered an organized mess.  Their desks are piles and seem senseless, yet they know where everything is.



This approach to personality testing is clearly entertaining, but it really shows how people are uniquely different and how important it is for us to use our uniqueness and individuality together in the world.  Our “true color diversity” becomes our strength in the world.  What if the world were made up of all Greens?  We would have too many people setting the vision and no workers.  Or Golds?  The work would get done and the place would be spotless, but without vision, the work will seem fruitless and there would be no joy in life.  Or Oranges?  It would be a fun place to be, but life would become hap-hazard and shoddy.  Or Blues? The world would take on too many social issues and eventually become emotionally drained.  All of the “colors” are in the world for a reason.  They are all brought into life to compliment each other just as our body parts working together.









Student Name:  __________________________________________ Period: ____    Date: ___/___/___


Story Title: ______________________________________________ Author: _____________________


Short Story Plot Diagram 


Instructions:  Complete every blank below for the short story assigned.



Protagonist: _________________________________   Climax: ______________________________


Antagonist: _________________________________                   _______________________________


Other Important Characters: __________________                           Falling Action:________________


_________________________________________                                     _________________________


                                                                                                     Dénouement: __________________________

Conflict:  Man versus ____________________                                         



Setting / Place: _______________________          10 _______________________________________


__________________________________           9__________________________________________


________________________________            8____________________________________________


Time: _________________________             7_____________________________________________


_____________________________           6_______________________________________________


Pre-action: __________________          5 _________________________________________________


_________________________            4___________________________________________________


________________________          3_____________________________________________________


______________________           2 ______________________________________________________


____________________           1 ________________________________________________________


Exposition (above):          

                                                        Inciting Moment:___________________________________________






Poor          OK           Great

   1       2      3       4       5


Rank the story:                                                                                                                       ã 2006 Glen Dawursk, Jr.